**Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)**, or

*magnetofluiddynamics*, is the academic discipline which studies the dynamics of electrically-conducting fluids. It is study of the motions of electrically conducting fluids and their interactions with magnetic fields. Examples of such fluids include plasmas and liquid metals. The set of equations which describe MHD is a combination of the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid dynamics and Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism.

Plasma is a fluid with the ability to carry electric currents with no local accumulations of electric charge. The magnetic field exerts a force on the entire plasma. The magnetic field exert a force on the currents.

The magnetic field is three-dimensional. Generates and sustains magnetic fields that are turbulent. The Alfvén waves are vibrations in the magnetic field liness. The waves propagate along the field liness. This force is the new dynamic element.

Combined actions:

- magnetic field line tension
- magnetic field pressure strength

Active fields of MHD research include:

- Plasma equilibria and stability- plasma confinement
- MHD dynamo
- MHD electrical generators - experimental devices to achieve controlled fusion
- Nuclear reactor liquid-metal cooling
- Electromagnetic casting

### References

- P. A. Davidson, "
*An Introduction to Magnetohydrodynamics*", May 2001 452 p ISBN 0521794870 - Jordan, R.,"
*A statistical equilibrium model of coherent structures in magnetohydrodynamics*". Nonlinearity 8 (July 1995) 585-613. - Hurricane, O. A., B. H. Fong, and S. C. Cowley, "
*Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic detonation: Part I*". Physics of Plasmas Vol 4(10) pp. 3565-3580. October 1997. - Tabar, M. R. Rahimi, and S. Rouhani, "
*Turbulent Two Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamics and Conformal Field Theory*". Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology. Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics. Tehran, Iran. arXiv:hep-th/9503005 v1 1 Mar 1995. - Pai, Shih-I. "
*Magnetogasdynamics and Plasma Dynamics*". Vienna: Springer-Verlag, 1962. 197 p. ASIN 0387806083 - Biskamp, Dieter. "
*Nonlinear Magnetohydrodynamics*". Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1993. 378 p. ISBN 0521599180 - Ferraro, Vincenzo Consolato Antonio and Plumpton, Charles. "
*An Introduction to Magneto-Fluid Mechanics*", 2nd ed. - Roberts, P.H. "
*Introduction to Magnetohydrodynamics*". London: Longmans Green, 1967. - Kulikovskiy, A.G. & Lyubimov, G.A. "
*1965 Magnetohydrodynamics*". Addison&Wesley, Massachusetts. - Sutton, G. W., and A. Sherman, "
*Engineering Magnetohydrodynamics*", McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1965. - "
*Magnetohydrodynamic Generators with Nonequilibrium Ionization*", AIAA Journal, Vol. 3, April, 1965, p 591. - Hughes, W., and F. Young, "
*The Electromagnetodynamics of Fluids*", New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc. 1966.